(Rough/Possible) Abstract For FSEM Paper

From as early as the the spread of the black plague (Yersinia Pestis) to the weaponization of the Anthrax bacterium (Bacillus Anthracis), much of warfare and the home-front alike across history have suffered at the hands of organisms that remain hidden to the unaided eye. Since its conception, microbiology has sought to gain a better understanding of the micro-verse that surrounds us and use this knowledge to better humanity. However in what is considerably the most heinous perversion of the field we find that throughout human conflicts within the modern era (approx. 1900-present day) a tremendous shift from study and innovation to weaponization and mass murder has become blatantly apparent.This paper drawing from several scholarly texts and microbiological accounts seeks to analyze the progression of the development of biological weapons since 1945 to the present day. As well as taking an intrinsic look at the uses, incidents and international responses to several different case studies of biological agents used in and out of warfare such as Anthrax (Bacillus Anthracis), HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) and Tularemia (Francisella tularensis). Sources that were used in this research include several biological lab reports on weaponization of these biological agents as well as scholarly works delving into not only the processes but the ethical dilemmas surrounding biological weaponry in a international context such as Deadly cultures : biological weapons since 1945 Mark Wheelis, Lajos Rózsa, and Malcolm Dando. By analyzing the development, implementation, and future implication of biological agents as weapons of war, massacre and genocide I seek to draw the perspective of human suffering away from the limitations of human social divisions and being seen as violence based solely on that pretext and unto the implications biological weaponry may have upon us as a whole species and the responses that are currently being made to better control this completely uncertain area of orchestrated human suffering.


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